Baumgartner, P. Barbarin, H. Gursky, and P. Meiburg, eds. Mora, J.
Butterlin, J. Sigal, G. GI acon, J.
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Mineral deposits in sedimentary basins
Bourgois, J. Azema, P. Baumgartner, J. Toumon, A. Desmet, and J. CrossRef Google Scholar. Burke, K. Fox, and A. Sengor, , Buoyant ocean floor and the evolution of the Caribbean: Journal Geophysics Resources, v. Calvo, C. Corrigan, J. Dengo, G. Buddington volume: Geological Society of America, p.
Denyer, P. Dewewer, D. Azema, J. Toumon, and A. These beds feature obvious erosion interfaces, extensive scour and filling structures, parallel bedding, cross bedding, swash bedding, extensive vein and lenticular sand bedding, bunchy bedding, and interbeds of sandy shale that form a rhythmite. Some of the layers contain glauconite and iron nodules, and some surfaces contain ripples.
Sediments in the shoreface and foreshore belts are prone to forming sedimentary structures because of washing and disturbance by waves action. Sediments in shore areas have simple mineral compositions, dominated by quartz with high maturities, and the surfaces feature structures like wave marks, erosional surface and crossing bedding This lithofacies contains silty and muddy deposits which are usually purple , mudstone, sandy mudstone and siltstone in thin or medium-thick layers.
This lithofacies is generally located in the upper part of the normal grading sequence, with some units containing sandstone and conglomeratic sandstone and occasional glauconite in extensive horizontal layers.
2.8.1 Geological setting
Lithofacies F represents a relatively quiet but exposed sedimentary environment Fig. Generally, it is interpreted as backshore deposits that were usually exposed subaerially and were only flooded at high tide or storm tide; water gathered in low-lying areas, resulting in silty or muddy deposits. Comparisons of Precambrian strata remain controversial due to the lack of specific chronological data.
Previous research has shown that the Proterozoic Ruyang Group was deposited in a passive continental margin environment and is not older than 1.
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Thus, the available data constrain the age of the Bingmagou Formation to 1. Closer to the centre of the Xionger rift trough and near the southern margin of the NCC, the Luanchuan region was the first area to have experienced transgression and was the area with the deepest water during the late transgression. The Mianchi, Shaoyuan and Lushan regions were, on the one hand, influenced by the higher terrain in the north and lower terrain in the south; and on the other hand they were situated in the fault zone of the Xionger rift trough and were significantly influenced by this fault zone.
In these regions, there are alluvial fan sedimentary strata of the lower Bingmagou Formation, and although tectonism may not be the main factor affecting the formation of the alluvial fan 60 , 61 , its influence on the sedimentary characteristics, fan shape and deposition thickness cannot be neglected 56 , 58 , 60 , Due to extensive gravity flows resulting from long-term faulting, the Bingmagou Formation alluvial fan resulted in thick gravelly deposits and fan-shaped deposits With the transgression, marine coastal sediments began to be deposited in the upper Bingmagou Formation.
When the Bingmagou Formation was deposited, the Yangcheng region was higher and experienced weathering and erosion, thereby acting as the provenance of clastic material. The sedimentary strata of the Yunmengshan Formation above the Bingmagou Formation did not develop until the late transgression.
With similar volcanic layers at the bottom of each, the Gaoshanhe Formation and the Yunmengshan Formation have often been correlated, but doubts remain 32 , Wang 59 obtained a middle-late age for the volcanic layers. The stratigraphic correlation between the Gaoshanhe Formation and the Yunmengshan Formation is indisputable given both formations are marine deposits unconformably overlying the Xionger Group volcanic rock.
However, in the area where the Bingmagou Formation occurs, could the marine strata of the upper Bingmagou Formation have been deposited at the same time as the lower Gaoshanhe Formation Fig. Could the Gaoshanhe Formation in the Luanchuan region on the southern margin of the NCC have undergone transgression first and thus be older than the Yunmengshan Formation inland? The existence of the Bingmagou Formation indicates a short period of exposure and erosion 1. Stratigraphic correlation and sedimentary facies evolution of the Bingmagou Formation on the southern margin of the North China Craton.
Compared with the research on the Yanliao rift trough, the Xionger rift trough requires further study. The sedimentary system of the Xionger rift trough is the result of tectonic events related to the breakup of the Columbia Supercontinent. The volcanics and sediments of the Xionger Group constitute the basement of the rift trough upon which the Guandaokou Group and Ruyang Group were deposited, producing a sedimentary cover.
In the early Proterozoic, seawater entered the Xionger rift trough but deposition was limited on the southern margin of the NCC. As shown in Fig. Due to the relief generated by faults, alluvial fans rapidly developed near source areas, forming thick clastic strata characterized by clasts with poor sorting, poor roundness, large average sizes and complex compositions.
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The alluvial fan strata of the Bingmagou Formation on the southern margin of the NCC feature small spatial distributions and radial extents, extending and thinning out from the northeast to the southwest due to the terrain being higher in the north and lower in the south. A Development period of the Bingmagou Formation alluvial fan. B Development period of the Bingmagou Formation coastal facies Fig. Later, with ongoing transgression, most of the area changed from terrestrial to marine deposition, and coastal sedimentary strata of the upper Bingmagou Formation developed Fig.
The identifiable transformation interface from the alluvial fan to a coastal environment is the bottom of the transgressive lag conglomerate layer. In the coastal facies deposits, the conglomerate layer is thinner, the gravels are smaller in size and better rounded, and there is typical bi-directional cross bedding, bunchy bedding and swash bedding in the marine sandstone above, which differs from the unidirectional bedding in the underlying alluvial fan deposits.
Furthermore, ripple marks and glauconite are abundant in the sandstone and mudstone layers. In addition, the coastal sedimentary strata have a wider spatial distribution, and they can be traced and correlated across the region. In general, the alluvial fan sedimentary strata in the lower Bingmagou Formation have a smaller distribution range than the coastal sedimentary strata, since the alluvial fan deposits were strongly controlled by structures and the terrain, and as a result are distributed locally.
Sedimentary Basins: Origin, Depositional Histories, and Petroleum Systems
The marine deposits that formed during the transgression are much more extensive than the earlier alluvial fan deposits, resulting in the local development only of coastal deposits in the upper Bingmagou Formation in Zhulan village. The nature of the Precambrian sedimentary environment is largely determined based on changes in petrologic characteristics and sedimentary structures, namely on the theoretical inference and verification provided by sedimentology and stratigraphy. Obviously, experiments and tests of characteristics such as grain size, typical elemental content and mineral characteristics can also be useful for identifying the palaeoenvironment.
With the formation and development of the Xionger rift trough on the southern margin of the NCC and subsequent continuous marine transgression, the depositional environment of the Bingmagou Formation changed from terrestrial alluvial fan to a marine gravelly and sandy coast. However, under the influence of local uplifts east of the Xionger rift trough and the terrain of the southern margin of the NCC being lower in the south and higher in the north, the alluvial fan deposits of the Bingmagou Formation only occur locally in the Shaoyuan, Mianchi, Lushan and Songshan regions.
The gravelly and sandy coastal deposits that formed during the later transgression cover the entire area but developed first in the Luanchuan region at the very southern margin of the NCC, where the sedimentary environment was already marine when the Bingmagou Formation alluvial fans were still developing elsewhere. This region transitioned into a deeper-water environment in the later Yunmengshan period, when a carbonate ramp slope formed.
Mineral deposits in sedimentary basins
In conclusion, a highly distinctive type of environmental change gave rise to the unique depositional features of the Bingmagou Formation. Liu participated in the study design, data collection, analysis of data and preparation of the manuscript and prepared Figures 1, 2 and 8. Yue carried out the study design, the analysis and interpretation of the data, drafted the manuscript, and prepared Figures 3—7. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Liang Yue and ZiLiang Liu contributed equally to this work. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Sci Rep. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Liang Yue, Email: moc. Corresponding author.